panama history and geography

contiguous zone: Temperatures are uniformly high—as is the relative humidity—and there is little seasonal variation. Panama encompasses approximately 75,417 km2 (29,119 sq mi). Language. territorial sea: party to: For details on the engineering and operation of the waterway, see Panama Canal. Paralleling the principal mountain chains, a lower mountain arc extends along Panama’s southern coast. It has an elongated S shape, with its Caribbean coastline stretching some 800 miles (1,290 km) and the Pacific coast some 1,060 miles (1,700 km); however, a line drawn from the Costa Rican frontier in the west to the Colombian border in the east would extend only 480 miles (770 … These Pacific-oriented rivers are longer and slower running than those of the Caribbean side. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. It is equally well known for its natural beauty, for its diverse plant and animal life, including hundreds of bird and tree species, and for its vibrant music and culture. In 1904, the United States and Panama signed a treaty that allowed the United States to build and operate a canal that traversed Panama.The treaty also gave the United States the right to govern a ten-mile wide Canal Zone that encompassed the waterway, which was completed in 1914. The temperature seldom exceeds 32 °C (89.6 °F) for more than a short time. Panama is located on the narrow and low Isthmus of Panama. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The area that became Panama was part of Colombia until the Panamanians revolted, with U.S. support, in 1903. With the decline of the Spanish Empire, Panama lost much of … Panama's culture is the result of its geographical location and history. The country is a natural land bridge connecting the South American continent with Central America. Panama was part of the Spanish Empire for over 300 years (1513–1821) and its fate changed with its geopolitical importance to the Spanish crown. Rainfall is generally much heavier on the Caribbean than on the Pacific side. The United States relinquished jurisdiction of the Panama Canal on December 31, 1999, marking an unprecedented shift in Panamanian society. The cycle of rainfall is determined primarily by two factors: moisture from the Caribbean, which is transported by north and northeast winds prevailing during most of the year, and the continental divide, which acts as a rain shield for the Pacific lowlands. With this in mind, we have compiled an easy to navigate travel information section dedicated to Panama. Military. This Central American country is bordered by Costa Rica and Colombia, and is situated between the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean. Farther east it becomes the Serranía de Tabasará, and the portion of it closer to the lower saddle of the isthmus, where the canal is located, is often called the Sierra de Veraguas. Geography - note: Arrowheads found near Lago Alajuela (Madden Lake) in the Panama Canal point to human habitation around 9,000 B.C., and there are traces of agriculture along Panama’s central Pacific coast that date back to 5,000 B.C. The two principal ranges, the Tabasará Mountains (Cordillera Central) in the west and the Cordillera de San Blas in the east, are separated near the centre of the country by a saddle of lower land. The mountain range of the divide is called the Cordillera de Talamanca near the Costa Rican border. For the next 82 years, Panama attempted unsuccessfully to break away from Colombia. Panama had been a Spanish colony since the early 1500s and then Panama enjoys a lively mix of cultural influences, expressed in the country’s cuisine, artwork, music, and literature. Secession from Spain and union with Gran Colombia, Transcontinental railroad and canal projects, The Cold War Museum - Manuel Noriega and Panama, National Geographic Kids - Countries - Panama, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Panama, Panama - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Panama - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Panama's special geography and history make its people the most cosmopolitan in the region. strategic location at eastern end of Central America; controls Panama Canal that links Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with Pacific Ocean. GEOGRAPHY. Depths of 180 metres (591 ft) are reached only outside the perimeters of both the Gulf of Panama and the Golfo de Chiriquí, and wide mud flats extend up to 70 km (43 mi) seaward from the coastlines. water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources, Environment - international agreements: The Panama Canal was the greatest single engineering feat in history. signed, but not ratified: This depression (the Panama Canal site) divides the country again—roughly into western and eastern halves. There are over 1000 islands off the Pacific Coast, 378 islands and cays in the San Blas Archipelago, and another 250+ islands, cays and islets in the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro. A variation of about 70 centimetres (2.3 ft) between high and low water on the Caribbean coast contrasts sharply with over 700 cm (23 ft) on the Pacific coast, and some 130 km (81 mi) up the Río Tuira, the tidal range is still over 500 cm (16 ft). Mangrove swamps occur along parts of both coasts, with banana plantations occupying deltas near Costa Rica. While the country is embracing modernism and foreign social beliefs most of which are practiced in the major cities, the traditional customs and beliefs are still observed particularly in the rural regions of Panama. The lowlands include the plains of Panamá and Chiriquí provinces, the plains and hills of Colón province, the Chepo and Chucunaque river basins in the east, and the narrow northeastern plains of the Caribbean region. This official website of the Embassy of Panama in the U.S. provides general country information including history, culture, political structure, economy and tourism. Geography Panama Homepage The Panama Homepage has provided a variety of information with regards to Panama's position in the world. However, its economic progress has been hampered periodically by environmental problems and political turmoil. The social beliefs and customs practiced in Panama are drawn from ethnic communities native to the country and those who came from different parts of the world. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? 90.33% (2011), Total renewable water resources: Area 30,193 square mi (78,200 square km) Capital Panama City Population 3.868 million 2014 Highest Point 11,400 ft (3,475 m) Lowest Point 0 m GDP $46.21 billion Panama is a narrow, s-shaped isthmus located between Colombia and Costa Rica, bordered by both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean. Nearly 500 rivers lace Panama's rugged landscape. A cosmopolitan city where skyscrapers tower above whitewashed bungalows, it enjoys a handsome setting and a growing importance as a commercial and financial services centre for the region. It is 772 km (480 mi) long, and between 60 and 177 kilometers (37 and 110 mi) wide. This page was last edited on 18 April 2020, at 20:42. According to archaeologists, humans lived in Panama as early as 12,000 B.C. The numerous islands of the Archipiélago de Bocas del Toro, near the Beaches of Costa Rica, provide an extensive natural roadstead and shield the banana port of Almirante. Learn about the history and culture of Panama, the must-try food and drink, and what to pack in your suitcase. Panama is bounded to the north by the Caribbean Sea (an extension of the Atlantic Ocean) and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. Construction began in 1904 under the Army Corps of Engineers led by George W. Goethals. Almost all of the rain falls during the rainy season, which is usually from May through November, but varies in length from seven to nine months, with certain exception due to monsoons. There is also a museum of contemporary art in Panama City which houses many modern paintings and sculptures that blend native influence with European and North American styles. Panama is located in Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. It offers a view of both the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.[1]. Deforestation is a continuing threat to the rain-drenched woodlands. Marine Life Conservation. Panama is divided into 10 provinces, plus several indigenous comarcas. 7.16% Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Water in the Panama Canal does not flow from coast to coast; rather, it is released from the rain-fed Gatún and Alajuela (Madden) lakes in the central highlands. total: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills, Southernmost point: Punta Mariato, Cerro Hoya National Park, Veraguas, Westernmost point: Border with Costa Rica, Chiriquí Province, Easternmost point: Border with Colombia, Darién ProvinceLowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mHighest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m, Natural resources: Of Panama’s many short rivers, those that flow to the Caribbean include the Sixaola, Changuinola, Indio, Cricamola, La Miel, and Chagres. Panama has 1,550 miles (2,490 km) of coastline. other: Panama is bounded to the north by the Caribbean Sea (an extension of the Atlantic Ocean) and to the south by the Pacific Ocean. The new Panamanian government authorized French businessman Philippe Bunau-Varilla, to negotiate a treaty with the United States. Research Professor of History, University of Texas at Arlington. In effect, the water flows to both coasts simultaneously via the canal’s system of locks and dams. The principal archipelagoes off the Caribbean coast are those of Bocas del Toro and San Blas. America located on the narrow bridge of land that connects North and South America see Panama Canal on 31! And Colombia, which had already declared its independence Río Chepo and the Río Chepo and the include! Places by grasslands, scrub, and frosts occur in the Darién Scheme of the Caribbean coast those! Served in the mid-19th century more indented and irregular, and form coastal.... Must-Try food and drink, and 13 U.S. interventions the small Central American nation unique among its neighbors was. Canal is generally referred to by Panamanian geographers as the Cordillera de Talamanca near Costa... 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